Usman Ahmad1, Muhammad Ans Hussain1, Wahaj Ahmad2, Jazib Javed1, Zonera Arshad1, Zahid Akram*1

1 Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 2Comsats University Islamabad, Abbottabad


In the context of global climate variability, it is foreseeable that multiple agricultural regions worldwide will experience an upsurge in instances of drought and heat stress. Today, these abiotic stresses are the primary limiting factor affecting crop development and yield. It's prevalent in semiarid regions, but climate change is having a major impact on maize output. Climate change presents significant challenges for maize production, with rising heat stress emerging as a major problem. Lower yields, worse grain quality, and increased susceptibility to pests and diseases are some of the negative effects of heat stress on maize physiology. The optimum management choices for maize can be made with the help of predictions of future maize yield based on climate change projections and the projected developmental and physiological stomatal responses. The current results of this study summarize the physiological responses of maize to heat stress, which include adaptations in photosynthesis, respiration, water usage efficiency, and reproductive activity. Furthermore, many genetic engineering strategies, including breeding for heat tolerance and biotechnological treatments, including genetic engineering, to mitigating the adverse effects of heat stress on maize production and adaptation in Maize stomatal development. In maize's adjustment to climatic threats, molecular processes play a key role, particularly emphasizing the function of stomata. Some specific genes like AOX, Zm-AN13, and ZmSEC14p plays a crucial role in fortifying maize against severe temperature fluctuations. By amalgamating this data, the combination of conventional breeding, current techniques, and grasping the physiological reactions emerges as crucial in augmenting maize's capability to withstand upcoming climatic changes.


Keywords: Heat stress, Maize physiology, Maize production, Stomatal responses, Breeding Strategies

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